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Southern Cook Islands Customary Law, History, and Society

 

Southern Cook Islands Customary Law, History and Society Akapapa‘anga, Kōrero Tupuna, e te Ᾱkono‘anga Ture ‘Enua o te Pā ‘Enua Tonga i te Kūki ‘Airani by Ron Crocombe and Ross Holmes

 

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Price: NZ$150

Postage: New Zealand free I Australia NZ$30 I Rarotonga free I Southern Pacific Islands NZ$80 I Europe, UK and USA NZ$130

 

 

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Email the following information to Ross Holmes rossholmes@rossholmes.co.nz

 

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About the book:

You will receive the first three volumes of the book which consist of 1,280 full colour pages printed on high quality 128 gram matt art paper and presented in a slip case. The Volumes are designed by award winning designer Trevor Newman, who designed Vaka Moana. For a detailed index and an image of the books please click this link: http://www.rossholmes.com/index.php/southern-cook-islands-history-custom-land-tenure. For images of the book please click this link: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.359738704204520.1073741851.222900591221666&type=1 .

 

 

The focus of this book is the Southern Cook Islands and its people.


The suppression of custom that occurred in New Zealand also occurred in the Cook Islands, initially through the LMS. Subsequently the New Zealand administration introduced the New Zealand education system in the Cook Islands, which prohibited the use of the Cook Islands language in
schools, and taught Cook Islanders to be good uropeans.

 

The inferiority of many of the customs and institutions was impressed upon the minds of Cook Islanders.

 

The New Zealand administration had no interest in
Cook Islands custom, despite it being aware that the rules and practice of the Land Court were an introduced system that was in many ways is opposed to custom. It refused to hold an inquiry into Cook Islands custom.

 

Since Ron Crocombe wrote his pioneering works
Land Tenure in the Cook Islands in 1961 and 1964 (when anthropology was still a fledgling discipline), and edited and published Richard Gilson’s 1952 thesis as a book, The Cook Islands 1820-1950, no other detailed analysis of Cook Islands history and customary law has been published.

 

The purpose of this book is to re-examine primary
sources, to synthesize other peoples scholarly work, and to place my own research into a book which provides a detailed record of pre-European Southern Cook Islands customary law and society, and the impact which Europeans have had thereon. Fortunately we are now in a better position to interpret and understand customary evidence than the authors and Courts in the Cook Islands previously were, as there is now a relatively large volume of source material, much of which has not been previously analysed or readily accessible.

 

The Cook Islands Courts have from the commencement of the Court system in 1902 down to the present time made determinations on customary law in the absence of sufficient
evidence as to what customary law was. One purpose of this book is to ensure that relevant information about Māori customary laws is available.

The detailed research which I have carried out over the past 8 years has re-written Rarotongan history which had been distorted by widely believed invented traditions. I have established that a number of the “customs” relied upon by
the Courts were European invented traditions (including the doctrine of primogeniture). I have also established that during the LMS era some of the the ariki of Rarotonga, and others, acquired substantial areas of land, and titles, that they had no customary law entitlement to. There are accordingly many historical injustices in Rarotonga that remain to be righted.

 

Only 1,000 are being printed so it is first in first served. It will make a great Christmas present. 

All profits (if any) will be donated to the Cook Islands Library nad Museum Society Inc in the Cook Islands.

 

Cooks TN Presentation

 

The content of the book is as follows:

 

Volume 1:

Contents ‘Akapapa‘anga
Foreword Arataki‘anga 12
Preface Manako mua 14
The need for a resource on Southern Cook Islands customary law 15
The need for effective protection of cultural rights 20
Lawyers’ obligations to inform the Court of relevant Māori custom 21
Acknowledgments ‘Akameitaki‘anga 21
Glossary and Conventions ‘Akataka‘anga tumu tuatua 24
Abbreviations ‘Akapoto‘anga manako 30
Chapter 1 Introduction ‘Ᾱkamārama‘anga 32
The Cook Islands 34
The Cooks Islands place in Polynesia 40
Chapter 2 The evolution of, and sources of, material dealing with
Southern Cook Islands, customary law, history and society
Te akamata‘anga e te ngai i rauka mai ei te Papa kōrero e te peu tupuna
o te Pa ‘Enua Tonga o te Kūki ‘Airani 42
The need for caution when reviewing material concerning history and custom 44
Alternate versions of oral tradition and history 46
The intellectual, political and ethnographic environment in the late 1800s and early 1900s 48
Material on early Cook Islands society and customs 50
Material on the Mission era 54
Material on the New Zealand colonial era 55
The writings in the Journal of the Polynesian Society 56
Cook Islands oral family history and genealogies 56
The post 1823 writings of Cook Islands Māori 59
The 1800s writings of the missionaries 64
The writings of the Resident Agents, Resident Commissioners, and Land Court Judges 67
Land Court records 70
The writings of anthropologists and historians 73
The relevance of historical documents and books in Court proceedings 74
Chapter 3 Southern Cook Islands oral traditions
Te au kōrero o te Pa ‘Enua Tonga o te Kūki ‘Airani 76
Polynesian oral traditions 78
Categories of Polynesian oral traditions 85
Dating oral traditions 85
Genealogies 86
The transmission of oral tradition 89
The houses of learning 89
The houses of entertainment and dance 95
The priests 98
The teachers 98
The tribal historians 99
The ariki’s speaker 101

The recording and publication of oral traditions 101
The role of material objects, places, the landscape and the calendar in oral traditions 104
Creation traditions 109
Skyfather and Earthmother 112
The origin of human life 116
Demigods or culture heroes 118
Dating and locating culture heroes 118
Maui the fi sher of lands 118
Rata 120
The natural world and customary traditions 120
The Motutapu Islands 120
Passages, rivers, mountains, harbours and islands 120
The calculation of generations 121
Chapter 4 The discovery and early settlement of the Southern Cook
Islands (other than Rarotonga)
Te kitea‘anga e te no‘oia‘anga o te Pa ‘Enua Tonga o te Kūki ‘Airani 124
The development of Polynesian migration theories 126
The Polynesian migration theories of the 1800s 126
The problem of Polynesian origins 126
The Polynesian migration theories of the early 1900s 126
Stratigraphic archaeology and culture history 128
Settlement archaeology in Polynesia 128
New views on Polynesian origins and dispersals 129
Contemporary archaeology in Polynesia 129
Archaeological evidence of the settlement of the Southern Cook Islands 129
Migratory traditions 133
The Hawaiki concept 136
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of the Southern Cook Islands 138
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Aitutaki 139
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Atiu 139
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Mangaia 139
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Mau‘ke 139
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Mitiaro 139
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Palmerston 139
Oral traditions as to the settlement of Rarotonga 139
Oral traditions as to Tima reef 139
Chapter 5 The discovery and early settlement of Rarotonga until the
time of Karika Tara‘ape and Tangi‘ia-nui
Te kitea‘anga‘ia o Rarotonga e te no‘o‘anga o te Ui Tupuna i runga ia
rarotonga e tae ua mai kite tuātau o Karika Tara‘ape e Tangi‘ia 140
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Rarotonga 141
Historical background circa 875 to 1823 A.D 152
The early settlement of Rarotonga 152
The early migrants to Rarotonga 152
The early settlement of Rarotonga by Kainuku 172

The early settlement of Rarotonga by Arera 172
Introduction to the era of Karika Tara‘ape and Tangi‘ia-nui 180
The settlement of Rarotonga by Tangi‘ia-nui and Karika Tara‘ape 180
Tangi‘ia-nui 181
Karika Tara‘ape 188
Karika Tara‘ape’s purported fi rst voyage to Rarotonga 191
Karika Tara‘ape’s purported second voyage to Rarotonga 192
Karika Tara‘ape’s purported third voyage to Rarotonga 193
Karika Tara‘ape’s purported fourth voyage to Rarotonga 196
Karika Tara‘ape’s purported fi fth voyage to Rarotonga 196
Karika Tara‘ape’s purported sixth voyage to Rarotonga 197
Karika Tara‘ape’s purported seventh voyage to Rarotonga 197
The differences between the accounts of Karika Tara‘ape’s voyages to Rarotonga 198
Karika Tara‘ape’s and Tangi‘ia-nui’s fi rst meeting 199
The arrival of Tangi‘ia-nui in Rarotonga 204
The arrival of Karika Tara‘ape in Rarotonga 215
The arrival of Tūtapu in Rarotonga 217
The date of the arrival of Tangi‘ia-nui in Rarotonga 223
The creation of ariki titles in Rarotonga by Tangi‘ia-nui and Karika Tara‘ape 226
The oral tradition that Tangi‘ia-nui was the paramount ariki of Rarotonga 231
The oral tradition that Karika Tara‘ape was the paramount ariki on Rarotonga 242
Chapter 6 Southern Cook Islands customary law
‘Akono‘anga papa ture tupuna o te Pa ‘enua Tonga o te Kūki ‘Airani 248
Introduction 250
Māori customary law 254
Māori tika‘anga as law 258
The origins and importance of tika‘anga 261
The ritual aspect of tika‘anga 266
Breaches of tika‘anga 266
The changing nature of tika‘anga 266
Variations in customary law 273
Chapter 7 The importance of customary laws
Te puapinga o te ture tupuna 274
The doctrine of aboriginal rights 276
The doctrine of aboriginal title: legal obligations in relation to customary law 277
The content of aboriginal title 282
Evidence and proof of customary law 289
The discretionary powers of the courts to recognise customary law 294
The doctrine of discovery 298
The interpretation of Māori words in English language statutes 301

Chapter 8 The acquisition of rights to land
Tika‘anga atu ‘enua 302
The nature of customary “title” or rights to land 304
The Australian approach 304
The Canadian approach 304
The Cook Islands approach 306
The New Zealand approach 306
The date at which customary “title” was regarded as fi xed 307
The Canadian approach 307
The Cook Islands approach 308
The New Zealand approach 310
The ways in which customary rights to land were acquired in Māori society 312
Acquisition of land rights by discovery and exploration - Tika kitea 316
Introduction 316
Acquisition of land rights by conquest - Tika Raupatu 317
Introduction 317
How land rights were acquired by conquest 318
Total conquest that involved the expulsion or extermination of the defeated and which is
followed by occupation 320
A conquest followed by occupation but in which the defeat was not total
and the ‘defeated’ group remained on the land 322
Conquest followed by occupation when survivors of the defeated
party were subsequently permitted to return to part of the land 322
Acquisition of land rights by inheritance - Tika tūpuna 325
Acquisition of land rights by marriage 326
Acquisition of land rights by adoption 327
Introduction 327
Customary adoption in Rarotonga 329
Acquisition of land rights by gift - Tika tuku 333
Tika and the question of occupation 337
The Cook Islands approach 338
The Canadian approach 338
The New Zealand approach 345
The pattern of acquisition 349
The loss of rights to land 350
Reversion of land to ancestors and chiefs 352
The views of others on the Southern Cook Islands land tenure system 352
The views of the missionaries 352
The views of Pa ariki Maretu 353
The views of Frederick Moss 354
The views of the Cook Islands Federal Parliament 356
The views of Walter Gudgeon 358
The views of the Cook Islands House of Ariki 359
The statement by the Kōutu Nui (1977) 55
The major differences between New Zealand and the Southern Cook Islands 361
The evolution of custom 363

Chapter 9 Conquest and warfare in the Southern Cook Islands prior to
Christianity
Te au tuātau tamaki e te ‘ōrure‘au i mua ake ka tae mai ei te Evangeria
ki te Pā ‘Enua Tonga 368
Introduction 370
Weapons 372
The missionaries views on the extent of warfare 375
Warfare in Rarotonga 376
Introduction 376
The reasons for limited warfare from settlement by Tangi‘ia-nui and Karika Tara‘ape
to the time of Rongo‘oe 381
Warfare in Rarotonga in the Fearful Season: the time of Rongo‘oe to 1823 384
Chapter 10 Rights to land
Te Tika‘anga ki runga ite ‘Enua 386
Introduction 388
The customary bases of rights to land 388
The role of the titleholder 394
The types of ariki land 397
Rights to the marae 401
Rights to the kōutu 403
Rights of ariki to ariki land in the vaka of another ariki 403
The land rights of the mata‘iapo and rangatira in Rarotonga 404
Rights of the tribe 405
Rights of the lineage 405
Rights of the extended family 409
Rights of the individual 411
Chapter 11 The utilisation and role of land
Te ‘Enua e tana Anga‘anga 416
The geography of Rarotonga 418
The geography of Mangaia 420
The economic exploitation of land in Rarotonga 422
The role of land in social relations in Rarotonga 425
Work patterns 433
Fishing 433
Aratīroa and ‘arevananga 434
‘Ātinga 435
Chapter 12 Aitutaki customary law
Au ‘Akono‘anga Tupuna o Aitutaki 436
Oral traditions as to name of Aitutaki 438
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Aitutaki 439
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Manuae 442
Settlement patterns in Aitutaki 443
Wars in Aitutaki 443

 

Chapter 13 Atiu customary law
Au ‘Akono‘anga Tupuna o Atiu 444
Oral traditions as to name of Atiu 446
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Atiu 447
Oral traditions as to the investiture of ariki 462
Oral traditions as to Takutea 465
Wars in Atiu 465
Chapter 14 mangaia customary law
Au ‘Akono‘anga Tupuna o mangaia 466
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Mangaia 468
The creation of Mangaia 468
The initial settlement of Mangaia 472
The initial settlement patterns in Mangaia 476
The division of Mangaia into districts (puna) and sub-districts (tapere) 478
Acquisition of land rights by conquest 483
Wars in Mangaia 485
The Temporal Lord of Mangaia 486
The coming of the Tongaiti 486
The invasion of the ngāti-Tane from Tahiti 487
The Rarotongan invasion 492
The Aitutaki invasion 493
The Atiu invasion 493
The invasion of the Te Kama from Tahiti 495
The recovery and fall of the ngāti-tane 496
Ngariki Supremacy 499
The reign of Akatauira 502
The military rise of the Tongaiti 502
The restoration of the Ngariki 505
The rise and fall of the ngāti-Vara 508
The resurrection of the ngāti-Tane 524
The growth of the ngāti-Manaune 528
The ngāti-Tane and Manaune alliance 531
Chapter 15 ma‘uke customary law
Au ‘Akono‘anga Tupuna o mau‘ke 536
Oral traditions as to name of Mau‘ke 538
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Mau‘ke 538
Acquisition of land rights by conquest 543
Wars in Mau‘ke 550
Chapter 16 mitiaro customary law
Au ‘Akono‘anga Tupuna o mitiaro 560
Oral traditions as to the fi rst settlement of Mitiaro 562

 

Volume 2:

Contents ‘Akapapa‘anga
Chapter 17 The division of rarotonga after Karika Tara‘ape and Tangi‘ia-nui
Te Ve‘e ia‘anga a rarotonga i muri ake ite tuātau o Karika Tara‘ape e
Tangi‘ia-nui 10
Introduction 12
Settlement patterns in Polynesia 12
Land tenure by allocation and occupation within the landholding group 13
Settlement patterns in Rarotonga after the arrival of Tangi‘ia-nui and Karika Tara‘ape 13
The division of land in Rarotonga into tapere after the arrival of Tangi‘ia-nui and Karika Tara‘ape 17
The ariki in Rarotonga after the arrival of Tangi‘ia-nui and Karika Tara‘ape 31
Chapter 18 Succession to chiefl y titles in the Southern Cook Islands
Te Pa‘u Taonga i te Pā ‘Enua Tonga o te Kūki ‘Airani 34
Introduction 36
The Pa ariki and Kainuku ariki prior to 1823 40
The Tinomana ariki title prior to 1823 43
The Makea ariki title prior to 1823 46
The ancestry of Makea Rangi Makeakea 65
Rangi Makeakea’s children 70
Was Te Pa a Tuakino a son, or adopted son, of Rangi Makeakea? 72
The origin of the Makea Nui ariki and Karika ariki titles 75
The oral tradition that Makea Nui was the supreme ariki on Rarotonga when
Christianity arrived in 1823 87
The origin of the Vakatini ariki title 89
Succession to titles prior to 1823 96
Customary law on succession to chiefl y titles in Rarotonga 99
Was primogeniture an indigenous customary law 106
So called exceptions to the primogeniture rule pre-1823 114
The body which selects ariki 127
The body which selects mata‘iapo and rangatira 137
The importance of the investiture of chiefs 138
Under customary law can an eligable candidate be excluded from holding the title
on the basis of unsuitability? 145
Exclusion from holding of chiefl y titles by those who have left the chief’s family 148
Succession to chiefl y titles by illegitimate and adopted children 148
Succession to chiefl y titles by women 148
The signifi cance of reo ‘iku or oral wills or death bed declarations of chiefs 150
Abdication of rights to chiefl y titles 152

Chapter 19 The “fearful” season in rarotonga 1650-1823
Te Tuātau Matakuia i rarotonga Au Mataiti 1650 ki te 1823 156
Introduction 158
The meaning of, and creation of, nga mua vaka in Rarotonga 158
The creation of the Tākitumu vaka 162
Introduction 162
Power struggles in what is now Tākitumu, in the “fearful season” 163
Titikāveka 164
The claims of Makea Nui ariki, Karika ariki, Vakatini ariki and their families
to land in Titikāveka 164
Akapuo 166
Te Tupuna 168
Kauare 171
Arakuo 171
The arrival of Mangaians in Titikāveka 172
Avaavaroa and Vaimaanga 173
The creation of the Te Au o Tonga vaka 176
Power struggles in what is now Te Au o Tonga vaka in the “fearful season” 182
The areas of what is now the Te au o Tonga vaka which were under the control
of Tinomana ariki until circa 1775 182
The expulsion of Rongo‘oe circa 1625 187
The expulsion of Tinomana in late1700s or early 1800s 192
The killing of Putua Ariki and seven of his sons 192
The areas of Rarotonga which Te Pa a Tuakino and his descendants controlled prior to 1823 198
Takuvaine 207
Kiikii 209
Takuvaine 210
Tutakimoa 211
Ruatonga 211
Avatiu 212
Areanu, Atupa, Kaikaveka, Nikao, Pokoinu and Pupuauta 213
The conquest of land in what is now Te Au o Tonga, Rarotonga by Pa Ariki and Kainuku 1814-1823 215
The creation of the Puaikura vaka 224
Power struggles in what is now Puaikura, Rarotonga in the “fearful season” 227
Conclusions as to the invention of tradition in relation to the customary land of
Makea Nui ariki, Karika ariki and Vakatini ariki 229
The vaka of Rarotonga from 1814 to May or June 1823 229
The vaka of Rarotonga after May or June 1823 230

Chapter 20 Southern Cook Islands social stratifi cation
Akapapa‘anga ta o te Pā ‘Enua Tonga o te Kūki ‘Airani 232
Southern Cook Islands Social Stratifi cation 234
Māori leadership 238
Rank and power 239
Social stratifi cation in Rarotonga 241
Ariki 242
The authority of the ariki 249
Marriages of ariki 251
Ariki interference in the vaka of other ariki 252
Ta‘unga (priest) 253
Mata‘iapo 261
Mata‘iapo tûtara 264
Mata‘iapo ‘akarava 264
Rangatira 264
Selection of mata‘iapo and rangatira 34
Kōmono 268
Kiato 269
Toa 270
‘Unga 270
Aioa or tauta‘unga 271
Social stratifi cation in Mangaia 272
Chapter 21 religion and gods in Southern Cook Islands society
Te Akono‘anga Purepure e te au Atua o te au Pā ‘Enua Tonga o
te Kūki ‘Airani 276
Introduction 278
The fi rst order gods 278
The gods of the Southern Cook Islands 279
The form of the gods 284
The Rarotongan gods 286
The Aitutakian gods 287
The Atiuan gods 288
The Mitiaroan gods 290
The Mangaian gods 290
The link between ancestors and gods - Piri‘anga tupuna ki te atua 296
Religious ceremonies - Peu akono‘anga 297
The function of the marae in pre-missionary religion 297
Human sacrifi ces - Atinga tangata 306
The infl uence of the pre-missionary religion on the adoption of Christianity 317
The Impact of Christianity on traditional gods 317

Chapter 22 Pre European Southern Cook Islands social organisation
Turanga ora‘anga tangata ite tuātau ta‘ito o te Pā ‘Enua Tonga o te Kūki ‘Airani 318
Introduction 320
Earlier views on pre European Southern Cook Islands social organisation 324
The views of Walter Gudgeon on pre European Rarotongan social organisation 325
The views of Richard Gilson on pre European Rarotongan social organisation 328
The views of Ron Crocombe on pre European Rarotongan social organisation 330
The views of James Baltaxe on pre European Rarotongan social organisation 336
The views of Peter Buck on pre 1823 Mangaian social organisation 339
The views of Ross Holmes on pre European Southern Cook Islands social organisation 342
Māori kinship groups 343
Kopu tangata 345
Ngāti 348
Vaka 353
Other aspects of tika‘anga Māori 354
The sense of a community - Kāinga 354
Tapu and noa 354
Mana 357
‘Akautunga or utunga 359
Tiaki‘anga 361
Custom in relation to marriage 362
Pre-marital sexual relationships 363
Children 365
Socialisation and education 365
Feasts 370
Cannibalism 370
Material culture 380
Pre-missionary housing 381
Clothing 381
Property and exchange 383
Art 384
Changes in Southern Cook Islands social organisation after the European contact period 385
Chapter 23 rarotonga in 1823 before Christianity
Te ‘Enua rarotonga i mua ake ite taeanga Evangeria 386
The state of land rights in Rarotonga in 1823 388
The ariki in Rarotonga at the time of the arrival of Christianity in 1823 389
The vaka in Rarotonga in 1823 390
The ‘ōire in Rarotonga in 1823 390
The tapere in Rarotonga in 1823 391

Volume 3:

Contents ‘Akapapa‘anga
Chapter 24 The fi rst Europeans to visit the Southern Cook Islands
Te Papa‘a mua ki te Pā ‘Enua Tonga o te Kūki ‘Airani 8
Introduction 10
The naming of the Cook Islands 13
European discovery of Aitutaki 15
European discovery of Atiu 18
European discovery of Takutea 19
European discovery of Mangaia 20
European discovery of Manuae 22
European discovery of Mau‘ke 23
European discovery of Mitiaro 24
European discovery of Palmerston 25
European discovery of Rarotonga 26
European discovery of Tima reef 31
Chapter 25 The Mission era 1822-1888
Te Tuātau o te Evangeria – Mataiti 1822 ki te 1888 32
The London Missionary Society, its rationale and the heathen 34
The LMS missionaries responsible for bringing Christianity to the Cook Islands 38
The arrival of Christianity in the Southern Cook Islands 42
The conversion of Rarotongans to Christianity 1823-1870 44
New patterns of settlement 55
Explaining the rapid conversion 55
Idealogy and Mission teaching 58
Reverend James Chalmers and the 1870’s in Rarotonga 59
Health, medicine and population 60
Social structure 75
Introduction 75
The changing status of women 80
Warfare and land disputes after 1823 81
New laws and their enforcement in Rarotonga 87
New laws and their enforcement in Mangaia 102
The functioning of the laws 106
Foreign settlement in Rarotonga 110
Foreign settlement of other islands in the Cook Islands 116
Economic Development 116
The money economy and the changing role of the chiefs 125
Education 127
The alleged confession of sins 130
The missionaries opinions of Cook Islanders during the Mission era 131
The opinions of others on the Mission era 132

Chapter 26 The impact of the Mission era upon Southern Cook Islands Māori
customary law and society 1822-1888
Te Turanga o te Peu Tupuna, te au Papa Ture Tupuna, Te au Papa‘anga Kōrero
e te ‘Akaruruanga ‘Okota‘i i roto i te Pā ‘Enua Tonga i muri ake ite taeanga
Evangeria – Mataiti 1822-1888 138
Introduction 140
New patterns of settlement 140
The impact of the Mission era upon customary law and society 154
The infl uence of the LMS on the appointment of ariki and mata‘iapo 156
The ariki of Tākitumu vaka, Rarotonga 1823 to 1888 157
The ariki of Te au o Tonga vaka, Rarotonga 1823 to1888 159
Makea Nui ariki 1823 to1888 160
Karika ariki 1823 to 1888 162
Vakatini ariki 1823 to 1888 163
The ariki of Puaikura vaka, Rarotonga 1823 to 1888 168
The impact of the Mission Era on the ariki of Rarotonga 1823 - 1888 168
The enhancement of the power of the ariki 170
The impact of the actions of the LMS on land 173
Acquisition of land by the LMS 173
The seizure of land during the Mission era 183
Acquisition of matai‘iapo and rangatira titles and associated lands by the ariki of Rarotonga 192
Land acquisition by the ariki of Te Au o Tonga, Rarotonga 194
The land of the branches of Arera 196
The Tukuvaine lands, Te Au o Tonga 197
The Tupapa tapere, Te Au o Tonga 197
Atupa Section 102 , Te Au o Tonga 197
The Te Ora Succession 198
Land acquisition in the Tākitumu vaka, Rarotonga 198
Tuiakana Section 13 E, Matavera 198
Ararpoura Section 2F, Ngāti Tangi‘ia 199
Land acquisition by Kainuku ariki in the Tākitumu vaka, Rarotonga 199
Land acquisition in the Puaikura vaka, Rarotonga 200
Sections 88G Tatari and 88J Te Rua o te Maraua, Puaikura 200
Te Rua o te Marama, Puaikura 200
Autopa, Puaikura 201
The Kapu Rangatira title lands 201
The confi scation and destruction of genealogies and family history by the ariki of Rarotonga 201
Treatment of outer islanders by the ariki in Rarotonga 201
Deprivation of the land rights of commoners by the ariki of Rarotonga 202
The imposition of prohibitions or ra‘ui in respect of cash crops by the ariki of Rarotonga 203
Bibliography 204

 

 

 
 

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